AC6605 Access Controller - Huawei Products
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AC6605 Access Controller

Huawei AC6605 is a box wireless access controller that provides wired and wireless access services. It delivers flexible campus and office networking solutions for medium-to large-sized enterprises and branches.
• 10 Gbit/s forwarding capability
• 1024 access points
• 10K users
• 1+1 hot backup
• 10GE uplink ports

Appearance

Ports

1. MODE button, switches working mode of indicators.


2. 20 10/100/1000BASE-T Ethernet electrical ports


Support 10M/100M/1000M auto-sensing.


Support PoE power supply on 20 ports.


3. Four combo ports


Support 10M/100M/1000M auto-sensing.


Support PoE power supply on four ports.


4. One ETH management port


5. One Mini USB port


6. One Console port


7. Two 10GE SFP+ uplink optical ports



Indicator Description

Number Indicator Silkscreen Description
1 On the rear panel: power supply indicator on the right PWR1 Steady green: The power supply is running properly.
Steady orange: When the device has two power supplies installed, the power supply in this slot is switched off, is not connected to a power source, or is faulty.
Off: This slot has no power supply installed or the power supply in the slot is not working properly when only one power supply is installed.
2 On the rear panel: power supply indicator on the left PWR2 Steady green: The power supply is running properly.
Steady orange: When the device has two power supplies installed, the power supply in this slot is switched off, is not connected to a power source, or is faulty.
Off: This slot has no power supply installed or the power supply in the slot is not working properly when only one power supply is installed.
3 System status indicator SYS Slow blinking: The system is running properly.
Fast blinking: The system is being started.
Steady orange: The temperature or functions of the device become abnormal.
Slow blinking: The device has entered the dormancy mode.
Steady red: After the device is registered, the system does not operate properly, or a power alarm, fan alarm, or temperature alarm is generated.
Off: The system is not working.
4 State status indicator STAT Steady green: The service interface indicator is in the default mode. In this mode, the indicator indicates the state of each interface.
Off: The indicator is not in the State mode.
5 Speed status indicator SPED Steady green: The service interface indicator indicates the speed of each interface. After 45 seconds, the service interface indicator automatically restores to the default mode (STAT).
Off: The indicator is not in the Speed mode.
6 PoE status indicator PoE Steady green: The service interface indicator indicates the PoE status of each interface. After 45 seconds, the service interface indicator automatically restores to the default mode (STAT).
Steady orange: At least one interface does not support PoE power or has a PoE error when mode switching is not performed.
Off: The indicator is not in the PoE mode.
7 Mode switch button MODE When you press the button once, the SPED indicator turns green and the service interface indicators show the speed of the interfaces.
When you press the button for a second time, the PoE indicator turns green and the service interface indicators show the PoE status of the interfaces.
When you press the button for a third time, the STAT indicator turns green.
If you do not press the button within 45 seconds, the indicators restore to the default status. That is, the STAT indicator turns green, and the SPED and PoE indicators are off.
8 Service interface indicator 24 GE electrical interfaces: numbered in the up-bottom and left-right orders and begins with 1.
GE optical interfaces: Each optical interface has a corresponding indicator above it.
Meanings of service interface indicators vary according to the indicator status. For details, see the following table.
9 ETH interface indicator The ETH interface has an arrow above it Steady green: A link has been established to the interface.
Blinks green: The interface is sending or receiving data.
Off: No link has been established to the interface.
10 Mini USB interface indicator Steady green: The Mini USB interface is in use.
Off: The Mini USB interface is not in use.
11 Console interface indicator Steady green: The Mini USB interface is not in use.
Off: The Mini USB interface is in use.

Mode Description
STAT mode Steady green: A link has been established to the interface.
Blinks green: The interface is sending or receiving data.
Off: No link has been established to the interface or the interface has been shut down.
SPED mode Steady green:
10M/100M/1000M interface: The interface is operating at 10/100 Mbit/s.
1000M/10G interface: The interface is operating at 1000 Mbit/s.
Blinks green:
10M/100M/1000M interface: The interface is operating at 1000 Mbit/s.
1000M/10G interface: The interface is operating at 10 Gbit/s.
Off: No link has been established to the interface or the interface has been shut down.
PoE mode Steady green: The interface is providing PoE power.
The interface cannot provide PoE power due to any of the following reasons: The power of the PD exceeds the power supply capability of the interface or exceeds the threshold. The overall output power has reached the maximum output capability of the device. The PoE power function is not enabled on the interface in manual power-management mode.
Blinks orange: The interface stops providing PoE power to a PD because a fault occurs (for example, an incompatible PD is connected to the interface).
Steady orange: The PoE function is disabled on the interface.
Off: The interface is not providing PoE power to any PD.

Abundant Port Types

  • Uplink port :Two 10GE optical ports.
  • Service port: 24 GE ports, the last four are used with four optical ports as combo interfaces.
  • Maintenance port:One RJ45 maintenance serial port; One RJ45 maintenance Ethernet port ; One mini USB maintenance serial port.


Large Capacity, High Performance, Integrated Design

  • Integrated design: An AC can function as an access or aggregation device to provide wired access services and function as a management device to control STA access.
  • Large switching capacity: An AC device has twenty-four GE interfaces and two 10GE interfaces. It provides 128 Gbit/s switching capacity and 10 Gbit/s forwarding capacity.
  • PoE: The AC supports the PoE function and can provide the maximum power on 24 ports. This PoE capability can provide power to APs and other powered devices (PDs) connected to the AC unit.


Carrier-Class Reliability

  • The AC supports port backup based on the Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) or Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP).
  • The AC supports redundant AC/DC power supplies.
  • The AC supports hot swappable power supplies.
  • The AC supports 1+1 hot backup.


Easy-to-Install and Easy-to-Maintain

  • The AC6605 dimensions (width x depth x height) are 442 mm × 420 mm × 44.4 mm and the AC6605 can be installed in a standard IEC cabinet (19 inch).
  • Power supplies of AC are hot swappable, facilitating maintenance.
  • The built-in web system of AC allows local GUI-based management.
  • The AC can be managed by the eSight that provides various northbound interfaces.
  • The AC support the intra-board temperature probe, which monitors the operating environment of the AC in real time.


Energy Conservation

  • Low noise fans that can adjust the speed automatically are used, thus reducing noises in the system and power consumption of fans.
  • The chip switches to the power saving mode when no connected device is detected on a service interface, that is, the interface is idle.
  • It uses highly-integrated and energy-saving chips produced through advanced processing techniques. With the help of the intelligent device management system, the chips not only improve system performance but also greatly reduce power consumption of the entire system.

Switching and forwarding features

Feature Description
Ethernet features Ethernet Operating modes of full duplex, half duplex, and auto-negotiation
Rates of an Ethernet interface: 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000 Mbit/s, and auto-negotiation
Flow control on interfaces
Jumbo frames
Link aggregation
Load balancing among links of a trunk
Interface isolation and forwarding restriction
Broadcast storm suppression
VLAN Access modes of access, trunk, hybrid, and
Default VLAN
MAC Automatic learning and aging of MAC addresses
Static, dynamic, and blackhole MAC address entries
Packet filtering based on source MAC addresses
Interface-based MAC learning limiting
ARP Static and dynamic ARP entries
ARP in a VLAN
Aging of ARP entries
LLDP LLDP
Ethernet loop protection MSTP STP
RSTP
MSTP
BPDU protection, root protection, and loop protection Partitioned STP

IPv4 forwarding

IPv4 features

ARP and RARP

ARP proxy

Auto-detection

NAT

Bonjour Protocol

Unicast routing features

Static route

RIP-1 and RIP-2

OSPF

BGP

IS-IS

Routing policies and policy-based routing

URPF check

DHCP client, server and relay

DHCP snooping
Multicast routing features

IGMPv1, IGMPv2, and IGMPv3

PIM-SM

Multicast routing policies

RPF

IPv6 forwarding

IPv6 features

ND Protocol

Unicast routing features

Static route

RIPng

OSPFv3

BGP4+

IS-IS IPv6

DHCPv6

DHCPv6 Snooping
Multicast routing features

MLD

MLD Snooping
Device reliability BFD BFD
Layer 2 multicast features Layer 2 multicast IGMP snooping
Prompt leave
Multicast traffic control
Inter-VLAN multicast replication
Ethernet OAM EFM OAM Neighbor discovery
Link monitoring
Fault notification
Remote loopback
QoS features Traffic classification Traffic classification based on the combination of the L2 protocol header, IP 5-tuple, outbound interface, and 802.1p priority
Action Access control after traffic classification
Traffic policing based on traffic classification
Re-marking packets based on traffic classifiers
Class-based packet queuing
Associating traffic classifiers with traffic behaviors
Queue scheduling PQ scheduling
DRR scheduling
PQ+DRR scheduling
WRR scheduling
PQ+WRR scheduling
Congestion avoidance SRED
WRED
Configuration and maintenance Terminal service Configurations using command lines Error message and help information in English
Login through console and Telnet terminals
Send function and data communications between terminal users
File system File systems
Directory and file management
File uploading and downloading using FTP and TFTP
Debugging and maintenance Unified management over logs, alarms, and debugging information
Electronic labels
User operation logs
Detailed debugging information for network fault diagnosis
Network test tools such as traceroute and ping commands
Interface mirroring and flow mirroring
Version upgrade Device software loading and online software loading
BootROM online upgrade
In-service patching
Security and management System security Different user levels for commands, preventing unauthorized users from accessing AC
SSHv2.0
RADIUS and HWTACACS authentication for login users
ACL filtering
DHCP packet filtering (with the Option 82 field)
Defense against control packet attacks
Defenses against attacks such as source address spoofing, Land, SYN flood (TCP SYN), Smurf, ping flood (ICMP echo), Teardrop, and Ping of Death attacks
IPSec
Network management ICMP-based ping and traceroute
SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3
Standard MIB
RMON


AP Management Specifications

Feature Specifications
AP access control Displays MAC addresses or SNs of APs in the whitelist.
Adds a single AP or multiple APs (by specifying a range of MAC addresses or SNs) to the whitelist.
Automatically discovering and manually confirming APs.
Automatically discovering APs without manually confirming them.
AP region management Supports three AP region deployment modes:
·Distributed deployment: APs are deployed independently. An AP is equivalent to a region and does not interfere with other APs. APs work at the maximum power and do not perform radio calibration.
·Common deployment: APs are loosely deployed. The transmit power of each radio is less than 50% of the maximum transmit power.
·Centralized deployment: APs are densely deployed. The transmit power of each radio is less than 25% of the maximum transmit power.
Specifies the default region to which automatically discovered APs are added.
AP profile management Specifies the default AP profile that is applied to automatically discovered APs.
AP type management Manages AP attributes including the number of interfaces, AP types, number of radios, radio types, maximum number of virtual access points (VAPs), maximum number of associated users, and radio gain (for APs deployed indoors).
Provides default AP types.
Supports user-defined AP types.
Network topology management Supports LLDP topology detection.


Radio Management Specifications

Feature Specifications

Radio profile management

The following parameters can be configured in a radio profile:

Radio working mode and rate
Automatic or manual channel and power adjustment mode
Radio calibration interval
The radio type can be set to 802.11b, 802.11b/g, 802.11b/g/n, 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11g/n, 802.11a, 802.11a/n, or 802.11ac.
You can bind a radio to a specified radio profile.

Unified static configuration of parameters Radio parameters such as the channel and power of each radio are configured on the AC and then delivered to APs.
Dynamic management APs can automatically select working channels and power when they go online.
In an AP region, APs automatically adjust working channels and power in the event of signal interference:
·Global calibration: The optimal working channel and power of a specified AP can be adjusted.
·Partial calibration: The optimal working channels and power of all the APs in a specified region can be adjusted.
When an AP is removed or goes offline, the AC6605-26-PWR increases the power of neighboring APs to compensate for the coverage hole.
Automatic selection and calibration of radio parameters in AP regions are supported.

Enhanced service capabilities

The AC supports 802.1a/b/g/n/ac. These modes can be used independently or jointly (a\n, b\g, b\g\n, and g\n).
The AC preferentially uses the 5 GHz frequency band for STAs.
2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency load balancing


WLAN Service Management Specifications

Feature Specifications
ESS management Allows you to enable SSID broadcast, set the maximum number of access users, and set the association aging time in an ESS.
Isolates APs at Layer 2 in an ESS.
Maps an ESS to a service VLAN.
Associates an ESS with a security profile or a QoS profile.
Enables IGMP for APs in an ESS.
VAP-based service management Adds multiple VAPs at a time by binding radios to ESSs.
Displays information about a single VAP, VAPs with a specified ESS, or all VAPs.
Supports configuration of offline APs.
Creates VAPs according to batch delivered service provisioning rules in automatic AP discovery mode.
Service provisioning management Supports service provisioning rules configured for a specified radio of a specified AP type.
Adds automatically discovered APs to the default AP region. The default AP region is configurable.
Applies a service provisioning rule to a region to enable APs in the region to go online.
Multicast service management Supports IGMP snooping.
Supports IGMP proxy.
Load balancing Performs load balancing among radios in a load balancing group.
Supports two load balancing modes:
Based on the number of STAs connected to each radio
Based on the traffic volume on each radio
BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) Identification of device types according to the OUI in the MAC address
Identification of device types according to the user agent (UA) field in an HTTP packet
Identification of device types according to DHCP Option information
Carrying of device type information in RADIUS authentication and accounting packets
Positioning services Locating AeroScout and Ekahau tags
Locating Wi-Fi terminals
Spectrum analysis Identification of the following interference sources: bluetooth, microwave ovens, cordless phones, ZigBee, game controller, 2.4 GHz/5 GHz wireless audio and video devices, and baby monitors.
Working with the eSight to locate the interference sources and display spectrum.



QOS

Feature Specifications
WMM profile management Enables or disables Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM).
Allows a WMM profile to be applied to radios of multiple APs.
Traffic profile management Manages traffic from APs and maps packet priorities according to traffic profiles.
Applies a QoS policy to each ESS by binding a traffic profile to each ESS.
AC traffic control Manages QoS profiles.
Uses ACLs to perform traffic classification.
Limits incoming and outgoing traffic rates for each user based on inbound and outbound CAR parameters.
Limits the traffic rate based on ESSs or VAPs.
AP traffic control Controls traffic of multiple users and allows users to share bandwidth. Limits the rate of a specified VAP.
Packet priority configuration Sets the QoS priority (IP precedence or DSCP priority) for CAPWAP control channels.
Sets the QoS priority for CAPWAP data channels:
Allows you to specify the CAPWAP header priority.
Maps 802.1p priorities of user packets to ToS priorities of tunnel packets.

Airtime scheduling

Allocates equal time to users for occupying the channel, which improves users' Internet access experience.


WLAN Security Specifications

Feature Specifications
WLAN security profile management Manages authentication and encryption modes using WLAN security profiles.
Binds security profiles to ESS profiles.
Authentication modes Open system authentication with no encryption
WEP authentication/encryption
WPA/WPA2 authentication and encryption:
WPA/WPA2-PSK+TKIP
WPA/WPA2-PSK+CCMP
WPA/WPA2-802.1x+TKIP
WPA/WPA2-802.1x+CCMP
WAPI authentication and encryption:
Supports centralized WAPI authentication.
Supports three-certificate WAPI authentication, which is compatible with traditional two-certificate authentication.
Issues a certificate file together with a private key.
Allows users to use MAC addresses as accounts for authentication by the RADIUS server.
Portal authentication:
Allows an AC to function as a portal gateway.
Prohibits an AC from functioning as a portal gateway.
Supports only Layer 2 portal.
Combined authentication Combined MAC authentication:
PSK+MAC authentication
MAC+portal authentication:
MAC authentication is used first. When MAC authentication fails, portal authentication is used.
This type of authentication applies only to centralized forwarding.
AAA Local authentication/local accounts (MAC addresses and accounts)
RADIUS authentication
Multiple authentication servers:
Supports backup authentication servers.
Specifies authentication servers based on account.
Configures authentication servers based on account.
Binds user accounts to SSIDs.
Security isolation Port-based isolation
User group-based isolation
WIDS Rouge device scan, identification, defense, and countermeasures, which includes dynamic blacklist configuration and detection of rogue APs, STAs, and network attacks.
Authority control ACL limit based on the following:
Port
User group
User
Other security features SSID hiding
IP source guard:
Configures IP and MAC binding entries statically.
Generates IP and MAC binding entries dynamically.


WLAN user management specifications

Feature Specifications
Address allocation of wireless users Functions as a DHCP server to assign IP addresses to wireless users.
WLAN user management Supports user blacklist and whitelist.
Controls the number of access users:
Based on APs
Based on SSIDs
Logs out users in any of the following ways:
Using RADIUS DM messages
Using commands
Supports various methods to view information:
Allows you to view the user status by specifying the user MAC address, AP ID, radio ID, or WLAN ID.
Displays the number of online users in an ESS, AP, or radio.
Collects packet statistics on air interface based on user.
WLAN user roaming Supports intra-AC Layer 2 roaming.
Supports inter-VLAN Layer 3 roaming on an AC.
Supports fast key negotiation in 802.1x authentication.
Authenticates users who request to reassociate with the AC and rejects the requests of unauthorized users.
Delays clearing user information after a user goes offline so that the user can rapidly go online again.
User group management Supports ACLs.
Supports user isolation:
Inter-group isolation
Intra-group isolation


Management and Maintenance Features

Type Feature
Maintenance and Management CLI-based management: You can use the console interface for local configurations or log in to the AC using telnet or SSH.
GUI-based web system management: The web system supports local GUI-based configurations.
SNMP-based NMS management: The NMS allows you to configure the AC based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
Provides the re-detection function to prevent incorrect detection because of instant interference.
Checks version matching automatically when the system is running.
The AC supports in-service software upgrade and patching. You can upgrade the features that need to be modified.
If the new system software cannot start the system during a system upgrade, the old system software can be used instead.
The AC supports in-service patching to protect services from being affected when a patch is installed. The software can be restored to the earlier version, and the device data before and after in-service patching is recorded.
Maintenance Debugging information output
Ping
Remote maintenance using SSH or Telnet
Tracing and Monitoring Ping and TraceRoute
Black Box
Mirroring

Physical Specifications

Item Description
Dimensions (width x depth x height) 442 mm x 420 mm x 44.4 mm
Maximum power consumption 85 W
Weight Net weight: 5.48 kg
Fully configured with 150 W power supplies: 7.16 kg
Fully configured with 500 W power supplies: 7.48 kg
Operating temperature -5ºC to +50ºC
Relative humidity 5% RH to 95% RH, noncondensing
Operating altitude 150 W DC power supply: 0 m to 2000 m
Others: 0 m to 3000 m
AC input voltage Rated voltage 100 V AC to 240 V AC, 50/60 Hz
Voltage range 90 V AC to 264 V AC, 47 Hz to 63 Hz
DC input voltage Rated voltage -48 V DC to -60 V DC
Voltage range -36 V DC to -72 V DC


System Configuration

Item Specifications
Processor Dominant frequency: 1 GHz
Switching capacity 128 Gbit/s
Forwarding capacity 10 Gbit/s
DDR memory 4 GB
Flash memory 256 MB


Protocol and Management Capabilities

Parameter Specifications
Number of managed APs 1024
Number of access users Entire device: 10K
Single AP: a maximum of 256 (depending on the AP model)
Number of MAC address entries 16K
Number of VLANs 4K
Number of routing entries 10K
Number of ARP entries 8K
Number of multicast forwarding entries 4K
Number of DHCP IP address pools 128 IP address pools, each of which contains a maximum of 16K IP addresses
Number of local users 1000
Number of ACLs 8K
Number of ESSIDs 4K
User group management 128 user groups
Each user group can reference a maximum of eight ACLs.
Each user group can associate with a maximum of 128 ACL rules.


Wireless Networking Capabilities

Feature Specifications
Networking between APs and ACs APs and ACs can be connected through a Layer 2 or Layer 3 network.
APs can be directly connected to an AC.
APs are deployed on a private network, while ACs are deployed on the public network to implement NAT traversal.
ACs can be used for Layer 2 bridge forwarding or Layer 3 routing.
Forwarding mode Direct forwarding (distributed forwarding or local forwarding)
Tunnel forwarding (centralized forwarding)
Centralized authentication and distributed forwarding
Before users are authenticated, tunnel forwarding is used. After users are authenticated, local forwarding is used.
Wireless networking mode WDS bridging:
Point-to-point (P2P) wireless bridging
Point-to-multipoint (P2MP) wireless bridging
Automatic topology detection and loop prevention (STP) Wireless mesh network Access authentication for mesh devices Mesh routing algorithm Go-online without configuration

AC discovery

An AP can obtain the device's IP address in any of the following ways:

Static configuration

DHCP

DNS

The AC uses DHCP or DHCPv6 to allocate IP addresses to APs.

DHCP or DHCPv6 relay is supported.

On a Layer 2 network, APs can discover the AC by sending broadcast CAPWAP packets.

CAPWAP tunnel

Centralized CAPWAP

CAPWAP control tunnel and data tunnel (optional)

CAPWAP tunnel forwarding and direct forwarding in an extended service set (ESS)

Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) encryption

Heartbeat detection and tunnel reconnection

Active and standby ACs

Enables and disables the switchback function.
Supports load balancing.
Supports 1+1 hot backup.
Supports N+1 backup.

Application Scenarios

The AC6605-26-PWR is connected to an aggregation switch in chain or branched mode.


The AC6605-26-PWR processes both control flows and data flows. Management flows must be transmitted over Control And Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) tunnels. Data flows can be transmitted over CAPWAP tunnels or not, as required.


The CAPWAP protocol defines how APs communicate with ACs and provides a general encapsulation and transmission mechanism for communication between APs and ACs. CAPWAP defines data tunnels and control tunnels.


Data tunnels encapsulate 802.11 data packets to be sent to the AC.


Control tunnels transmit control flows for remote AP configuration and WLAN management.


Two forwarding modes are available according to whether data flows are transmitted on CAPWAP tunnels:


Direct forwarding: is also called local or distributed forwarding.


Tunnel forwarding: is also called centralized forwarding. It is usually used to control wireless user traffic in a centralized manner.


You can select the chain or branched mode according to networking requirements. On the AC, you can configure direct forwarding for some APs and tunnel forwarding for other APs. In tunnel forwarding mode, all wireless user traffic is aggregated to an AC, which may create a switching bottleneck. Therefore, tunnel forwarding is seldom used on enterprise networks.



Chain Networking

In chain networking mode, APs or access switches are directly connected to the AC. The AC functions as both an AC and an aggregation switch to forward and process APs' data and management services.


In chain networking mode, the AC sets up CAPWAP tunnels with APs to configure and manage these APs over CAPWAP tunnels. Service data of wireless users can be forwarded between APs and the AC over CAPWAP data tunnels or be directly forwarded by APs.


In chain networking mode, direct forwarding is often used so that user service data can be forwarded on APs.


The AC functions as the DHCP server to allocate IP addresses to APs. APs obtain the IP address of the AC using the DNS function, DHCP Option 43 in DHCP packets, or Layer 2 discovery protocols, and then set up data tunnels with the AC.


In direct forwarding mode, only control flows are transmitted in CAPWAP tunnels, and data flows sent from APs are transparently transmitted to the upstream device by the AC, as shown in Figure. Data flows are identified by VLAN IDs.


When data flows are not transmitted in CAPWAP tunnels, configure management VLANs and data VLANs as follows:


On the AC and its upstream switches, configure an AC management VLAN to transmit control flows between the AC and the NMS.


On the switches between APs and the AC, configure AP management VLANs to transmit control flows between APs and the AC.


On all switches between APs and the BRAS, configure data VLANs to differentiate WLAN service flows.


The AC6605-26-PWR has a wired switching unit that provides powerful access, aggregation, and switching capabilities. In addition, the AC6605-26-PWR provides PoE+ power for 24 interfaces so that APs can directly connect to the AC. Direct forwarding is often used in chain networking mode. This networking mode simplifies the network architecture and applies to large-scale and centralized WLANs.



Branched Networking

In branched networking mode, the AC is connected to a network device (usually an aggregation switch) to manage APs.


The AC only manages APs. Management flows are transmitted in CAPWAP tunnels, and data flows are forwarded to the upper layer network by the aggregation switch and BRAS and do not pass through the AC.


Direct Forwarding

In direct forwarding mode, wireless user service data is translated from 802.3 packets into 802.11 packets, which are then forwarded by an uplink aggregation switch.


The branched networking mode is often used on enterprise networks. Wireless user service data does not need to be processed by an AC, eliminating the bandwidth bottleneck and facilitating the usage of existing security policies. Therefore, this networking mode is recommended.


The AC only manages APs. All AP control flows must reach the AC.


The aggregation switch has a port to connect to the AC and functions as the DHCP server to allocate IP addresses to APs. APs obtain the IP address of the AC using the DNS function provided by the BRAS or DHCP Option 43 in DHCP packets.


Data flows from APs are forwarded by the Layer 2 switch, aggregation switch, and BRAS and do not pass through the AC.


Different VLANs are assigned to STAs with different service set identifiers (SSIDs). The Layer 2 switch and aggregation switch identify packets from these VLANs and forward these packets to the BRAS. The BRAS terminates packets from terminals, controls user access, and allocates IP addresses to users. After a user is authenticated by the BRAS, traffic from the user is forwarded to the Internet across the IP network.


Tunnel Forwarding

In tunnel forwarding mode, wireless user service data is transmitted between APs and ACs over CAPWAP tunnels.


In Figure, both management flows and data flows of APs are transmitted to the AC over CAPWAP tunnels, and then the AC transparently transmits these flows to the upstream device.


Tunnel forwarding is usually used to control wireless user traffic in a centralized manner. This forwarding mode facilitates device deployment and controls all wireless user data flows by aggregating traffic of all wireless users connected to APs to an AC through CAPWAP data tunnels.


In branched networking mode, the AC manages all the APs connected to the aggregation switch. This network topology applies to scenarios where APs are scattered across hot spots.


The branched networking mode requires only a small modification to the existing network, facilitating device deployment. You can select the direct forwarding or tunnel forwarding mode according to networking requirements. Direct forwarding is recommended to enterprise networks.



Wireless Backhaul Networking

The 802.11 wireless technology has been widely used in home networks and enterprise networks. Users can easily access the Internet over WLANs. In this network application, APs must be connected to the existing wired network to provide network access services for wireless users. To expand the wireless coverage area, APs need to be connected using cables, switches, and power supplies. This increases network costs and prolongs network construction period. Wired deployment requirements may not be met in special circumstances. The Wireless Distribution System (WDS) or Wireless Mesh Network allows APs to be connected wirelessly, facilitating WLAN construction in a complex environment.


WDS

The WDS is a distribution system comprised of APs. The WDS connects to an AC on the network side, which is then connected to a network device such as a gateway or an aggregation switch. The WDS connects to a station (STA) or PC on the user side.


On a WDS network, an AC manages the following devices:


Root AP: connects to an AC on the wired side, and functions as a WDS master to connect to trunk APs or leaf APs.


Trunk AP: functions as a WDS slave to connect to a root AP, connects to wired devices on the wired side, or functions as a WDS master to connect to leaf APs.


Leaf AP: functions as a WDS slave to connect to a root AP or trunk AP or connects to STAs on the wireless side.


The WDS networking can expand WLANs and applies to indoor wireless deployment scenarios.


Wireless Mesh Network

Compared with a traditional WLAN, a wireless mesh network (WMN) has the following advantages:


Fast deployment: Mesh nodes can be easily installed to construct a WMN in a short time, much shorter than the construction period of a traditional WLAN.


Dynamic coverage area expansion: As more mesh nodes are deployed on a WMN, the WMN coverage area can be rapidly expanded.


Robustness: A WMN is a peer-to-peer network that will not be affected by the failure of a single node. If a node fails, packets are forwarded to the destination node along other paths.


Flexible networking: An AP can join or leave a WMN easily, allowing for flexible networking.


Various application scenarios: Besides traditional WLAN scenarios such as enterprise networks, office networks, and campus networks, a WMN also applies to scenarios such as large-scale warehouses, docks, MANs, metro lines, and emergency communications.


Cost-effectiveness: Only MPPs need to connect to a wired network, which minimizes the dependency of a WMN on wired devices and saves costs in wired device purchasing and cable deployment.


Nodes on a WMN can be classified into the following types based on their functions:


Mesh point (MP)


A mesh-capable node that uses IEEE 802.11 MAC and physical layer protocols for wireless communication. This node supports automatic topology discovery, automatic route discovery, and data packet forwarding.


Mesh portal point (MPP)


An MP that connects to a WMN or another type of network. This node has the portal function and enables mesh nodes to communicate with external networks.


On a WMN, MPs are fully meshed to establish an auto-configured, and self-healing backbone WMN, and MPPs with the gateway function provide connections to the Internet. An MP provides access services and connects a terminal to a WMN. A WMN uses special mesh routing protocols, which ensures high transmission quality. The WMN is applicable to scenarios that require high-bandwidth and highly-stable Internet connections.


Dual-AC Networking

To ensure uninterrupted service forwarding, enterprises that require high reliability use active and standby ACs for networking.


Dual-AC backup can be implemented in two modes:


HSB + dual-link backup: an AP establishes CAPWAP tunnels with both the active and standby ACs. The two ACs synchronize service information (such as NAC and WLAN service information) through the hot standby (HSB) function. When an AP is disconnected from the active AC, the AP notifies the standby AC of a switchover.


HSB + VRRP: an AP obtains only the virtual IP address of both the active and standby ACs. The active AC backs up information including AP entries, CAPWAP link information, and user information on the standby AC. In this mode, the AP only detects the presence of one AC. The active/standby switchover is determined by the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). Currently, this mode cannot be used in a VRRP multi-instance scenario.


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